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Dive Learning Picture

Page history last edited by Regina Claypool-Frey 11 years, 11 months ago


Dive Learning Picture

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Learning Picture Name = Dive.

Frequency of Correct Responses = Maintaining; not moving toward correct frequency aim.

Frequency of Error Responses = Decelerating toward Record Floor and toward error frequency aim.

Accuracy Ratio = Increasing.

Change to Make = Do a Tool Skill Drill.

Situation Report

Metaphor: Children back in the 1970s named this learning picture "dive" because the error frequencies decelerate, while the corrects maintain. This picture resembles either a diver or a submarine "diving" below the water. Pat All reported on the learning pictures and their names (All, 1977). Likewise, that same year Dr. Ogden R. Lindsley (1977) presented learning pictures to the MABA convention.

Description: "Dive" represents an undesired learning picture, typically. To be sure, it shows improvement in error learning. The errors get less and less. But there is no corrects learning. The corrects maintain, staying at or about the same frequency. The accuracy therefore, increases.

A "Dive" picture represents the flip side of a "Climb" picture. A "Dive" picture also illustrates that improvement to accuracy can occur, even though the rate of correct responding does not improve. A "Dive" picture helps illustrate why percent correct, alone, may prove insufficient for determining progress and improvement.

Decision: When a "Dive" picture emerges, since there is no corrects learning, this could indicate that the learner needs to work on the "tool skill" elements of whatever the current learning task requires. Thus, given a "Dive" learning picture, the decision may include doing "tool skill" drills.

Notes: The Record Floor represents the amount of time spent recording the behavior of interest. We define it as 1/number of minutes spent recording. On the chart we use a dashes to show it. If the Record Floor stays the same every day, then a dashed line (as shown above) can be used. "Zero" per minute is shown by frequencies plotted just below the Record Floor. All standard celeration charts should have a Record Floor.


All, P. (1977). From get truckin' to jaws, students improve their learning picture. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Kansas.

Lindsley, O.R. (1977). What we know that ain't so. Invited Address presented at the Third Annual meeting of the Midwestern Association of Behavior Analysis, Chicago, IL, May.


The chart shown above represents a likeness only of a standard celeration chart. The chart shown above is also a "stylized" chart. That means that I constructed it for teaching and illustrative purposes only. It does not show real data. The celeration lines range through more chart cycles than one typically finds.

Dr. Ogden R. Lindsley invented the Standard Celeration Chart, founded Behavior Research Company, and has been the main proponent and developer of both Precision Teaching and standard celeration charting.

Actual Standard Celeration Charts can be purchased from the Behavior Research Company, Box 3351, Kansas City, KS 66103. FAX: 913 362-5900.

For noncommercial educational and illustrative purposes only.


John W. Eshleman, Ed.D. June 2002



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